Acquisition Implementation is the set of detailed procedures that apply a uniform and disciplined approach to acquisition planning and project management from mission analysis and requirements generation through design, development, production, and deployment.
The Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) assesses potential materiel solutions to satisfy the new requirements [for DoD these are documented in the approved Initial Capabilities Document (ICD)]. It focuses on identification of alternatives, measures of effectiveness (MOE), cost, schedule, concepts of operations, and overall risk, including the sensitivity of each alternative to possible changes in key assumptions or variables. The AoA also assesses critical technologies associated with each proposed materiel solution, including technology maturity, integration risk, manufacturing feasibility, and, the ability to meet requirements.
Business Case Analysis (BCA) is the evaluation of alternative solutions for obtaining best value while achieving operational performance requirements, balancing cost, schedule, performance, and risk. It provides decision makers with quantitative, return-on-investment metrics to proactively manage the allocation of capital assets across their investment portfolio through the process of integrating project cost, benefit, schedule, and risk into an evaluation of overall value across a range of potential investment alternatives.
A Concept of Operations (CONOPS) is a user-oriented document that describes the characteristics for a proposed asset or system from the viewpoint of any individual or organizational entity that will use it in their daily work activities or who will operate or interact directly with it. It provides information relating to the needs and expectations of users of the proposed asset or system. It serves as a valuable communications vehicle for informing stakeholders and potential system suppliers of the operational and support context for the asset or system.
The goal of Configuration and Data Management (CM/DM) is to establish and maintain the consistency of a product’s performance throughout the product’s life. The goal is accomplished through technical and administrative direction and surveillance actions taken to identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of Configuration Items (CIs), to control changes to CIs and their characteristics, and to record and report change processing and implementation status. These processes provide a complete audit trail of decisions and design modifications.
Cost Estimating is a process of predicting future costs based on past experience using today’s knowledge and expertise. The process includes translating systemfunctional requirements associated with programs, projects, or proposals intoprogram baselines and required investments. The result or product of an estimating procedure is specifying the expected dollar cost required to perform a stipulated task or to acquire an item. A cost estimate may constitute a single value or a range of values.This sets the stage for critical subsequent steps,ranging from budget requests to procurement evaluations. If this original estimate is flawed, those flaws are magnified with each step in the process, eventually contributing to a project that cannot be managed to the cost parameters that were established.
Earned Value Management (EVM) is a program management methodology and tool that integrates a program’s (or contract’s) work scope, schedule, and resources with risk management, providing program managers with objective visibility into progress achieved and the ability to manage effectively. Program success is predicated on effective Program Management, which in turn relies on insight and control of resources, requirements, and schedule. EVM helps ensure that complex and risky development programs are successfully performed, as measured against their approved schedule and cost objectives. Proper EVM implementation generates opportunities to highlight performance issues early in order to provide the maximum time to identify and implement corrective actions when necessary.
Engineering is the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to design, build, and maintain structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. It may encompass using insights to conceive, model, and scale appropriate solutions to a problems or objectives. Engineering has a role in all major acquisition program decisions and is critical for managing cost, schedule, and performance risk through each of the Systems Acquisition milestones and from initial Concept of Operations through disposal of the fielded solution.
Financial Analysis services assist Federal Agencies through the Planning, Formulation and Execution (PFE) budgeting phases, including support for estimates and budgeting, justifications, financial accounting, reporting, analysis and evaluation. The budgeting phases require rigorous and knowledgeable analysis to allocate resources to programs to accomplish their missions. Experienced financial and resource managers support all phases of federal budgeting from formulation through execution. Given the present environment of declining funds there is significant contention for resources. As a result, accurate and comprehensive financial management and analysis support is critical for these agencies to stretch resources to meet their mission.
A Foreign Military Sale (FMS) consists of the United States Government (USG)-sponsored sale of defense articles or services to a foreign government or international organization. It is codified in the letter of offer and acceptance (LOA). The LOA is written by a U.S. military department (MILDEP) or other USG implementing agency (IA), based on applicable regulations and the specifications the purchaser has set forth in its letter of request (LOR). FMS Case Management is the process of completing the FMS negotiation, purchase, and delivery.
Logistics is a complete system approach for planning, executing, and controlling the flow of outbound and inbound goods, services, and related information to meet customer requirements in an efficient manner. Logistics uses numerous quantitative techniques along with strategic and tactical planning to plan for and execute processes that meet requirements for acquisition, tracking, packaging, warehousing, inventory, facilities, transportation, maintenance, and data management.
Operations Research is the discipline that deals with the application of advanced analytical methods to arrive at optimal or near-optimal solutions to complex decision-making problems. Using techniques such as mathematical modeling to analyze complex situations, operations research gives decision makers the power to be more effective and build more productive systems based on complete data, consideration of all available options, estimates of risk, and careful predictions of outcomes.
Performance Measurement is the process of collecting, analyzing, and reporting information regarding the performance of an individual, group, organization, system, or component – especially with respect to pre-established goals, metrics, or indicators. It can involve studying processes, strategies, outcomes, and perceptions within organizations to see whether outputs are in line with what was intended or should have been achieved.
Planning, Programming, Budgeting, & Execution (PPBE) is the primary Resource Allocation Process (RAP) of the Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community. It is one of three major decision support systems for defense acquisition along with the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS) and the Defense Acquisition System. It is a formal, systematic structure for making decisions on policy, strategy, and the development of forces and capabilities to accomplish anticipated missions. PPBE is an annual process which produces the Secretary’s Defense Planning and Programming Guidance (DPPG), five year approved Program Objectives Memoranda (POMs), and one year Budget Estimate Submissions (BES) for the military departments, defense agencies, and the DoD portion of the President’s Budget (PB).
A Procurement Strategy maps methods for the purchase of the materials, supplies, services, etc. that a company or project requires in order to successfully operate. In these terms, the procurement strategy refer to the planned approach of effectively obtaining an organization’s required equipment and services, taking into account requirements such as timelines, quantities, costs, sources of supply, policies, regulations, and risks.
Acquisition Program Baselines, which are mandated for major defense acquisition programs, provide quantitative and measurable cost, schedule, and performance targets (called “key performance parameters”) that must be achieved to meet the program’s goals. During program execution, program management tracks actual program parameters against the baseline to be alerted to potential problems, such as cost increases, schedule delays, or changes in requirements.
Requirements Development determines and documents the essential functions, properties, parameters, needs, or conditions to meet for a new or revised product or process. The process considers factors such as current and future stakeholders, performance criteria, compatibility with existing systems, usability, reliability, maintainability, costs, safety, risks, and the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders.
Risk & Opportunity Analysis examines each identified risk and opportunity to define the description and source, isolate the cause, and determine the effects in setting risk mitigation and opportunity optimization priorities. It considers the likelihood of root cause occurrence; identifies possible consequences in terms of performance, schedule, and cost; and identifies the risk level either in terms of confidence levels or in terms of high (red), medium (yellow), and low (green) on a Risk Reporting Matrix.
Risk Management is the process of identifying, assessing, and prioritizing risks followed by actions to minimize the probability of risk, reduce the impact of risk, or follow other strategies, depending on the nature of the risks. Effective risk management can assist in better applying scarce resources across a program; help balance cost, performance, schedule, and associated risk; and provide inputs for managing the program on a day-to-day basis.
A program schedule details all of the program’s activities [as defined in the project’s work breakdown structure (WBS)], providing a time sequence of events and detailing start times, durations, dependencies, milestones and required resources. Successful schedule development and execution require the use of mature, refined processes combined with the requisite tools and experienced personnel. Schedule Assessment determines the schedule’s validity, reliability, and credibility by examining if the schedule captured and logically sequenced all activities, properly assigned necessary resources, detailed assumptions in assigning durations, contains reasonable slack time (float), had review by all stakeholders, and represents the entire scope of the effort. Credible schedules are dependent on expertise in scheduling methodologies, comprehensive long-term planning, situational awareness on the organizations environment, and an ability to synthesize acquisition data.
Systems Analysis evaluates the interoperability and integration on fielded and/or development systems and assists with the oversight of the life-cycle management activities. This includes supporting the verification, validation, and accreditation process. The analysis evaluates system effectiveness and efficiency of processes and operations so that metrics can be developed to support decision making.
A Technology & Capability Roadmap is a plan that matches short-term and long-term goals with specific technology solutions to help meet those goals. The plan applies to a new product or process or to an emerging technology. Developing a roadmap has three major uses: it helps reach a consensus about a set of needs and the technologies required to satisfy those needs, it provides a mechanism to help forecast technology developments, and it provides a framework to help plan and coordinate technology developments.
Technology Assessment is the study and evaluation of new technologies. It is based on the conviction that new developments within, and discoveries by, the scientific community are relevant for the applications being considered (either as new capability insertion or new programs) rather than just for the scientific knowledge itself. The new technology is assessed in terms of practical applications and level of maturity (current condition and necessary improvements).
Test and Evaluation (T&E) is the process by which a system or components are exercised and results analyzed to provide performance-related information. The information has many uses, including identification and mitigation of risks and validation of models and simulations. T&E enables assessments of technical performance, specifications, and system maturity to determine whether systems are operationally effective, suitable, and survivable for intended use, and/or lethal. There are various types of T&E defined in statute or regulation depending on which phase is being evaluated (development, production, or fielding). In addition, specialized tests such as Interoperability Certification are required.
A test plan is a document detailing a systematic approach to testing a system, such as a machine or software. The plan typically contains a detailed understanding of what the eventual workflow will be.
Test & Evaluation is the process by which a system or components are compared against requirements and specifications through testing. The results are evaluated to assess conformance and progress against specified design and required levels of performance and supportability.
The Training Products & Services functional area includes assessment of training requirements and resources, development of training specifications, design and development of courseware or selection of existing training, training validation, courseware delivery and facilitation, and metrics development and reporting. The training may include organizational development and process improvement training activities or applied exercises resulting in the attainment and retention of knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding the platforms, systems, and warfighting capabilities by those who operate and maintain them.